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Are Medieval and Dark Ages the Same? Difference Explained!

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Dark Ages, Medieval Ages, Middle Ages – It is impossible to study English Literature without facing the confusion between these 3 terms. The term ‘Dark Ages’ has been commonly used for one particular period in the history of mankind- the Medieval Age, or what we call, the Middle Ages.

(It reminds me of the dystopian saying – “These are dark times.” Anyway…) The primary questions are – What were the Middle Ages? And why are they called dark? Looks like we have to put our detective gloves on for this one! Let’s get started with our investigation, shall we?

There is one more thing that I would like to clear right away, just in case –

Middle Ages = Medieval Ages. ‘Middle Ages’ is a noun. Medieval is an adjective that refers to anything that belongs to the Middle ages. It is the same thing as saying ‘Britain’ and ‘British’.

The terms Middle Ages / Medieval Period and Dark Ages distinguished: –

CharacteristicMiddle Ages / Medieval PeriodDark Ages
Timeline (Tentative)5th Century to 15th Century5th Century to 15th Century
Geographical Areas Concerned All over the world.Europe (especially Western)
Notable Events (a few key events)– Fall of the Roman Empire

– Development of the English Language

– Spread of Christianity

– The signing of the Magna Carta

– The Islamic Golden Age

– The Carolingian Renaissance

– The Abbasids’ revival of the Hellenistic Period

– The invention of the printing press
– Anglo-Saxon Wars

– Vikings invasion

– The Crusades

– The Hundred Years’ War

– The Black Death

– The decline of literature and scientific progress

– The dominance of blind faith
Famous Literary Works (English)
(for an extensive list, refer to the ‘Literature’ section below)

– Bede’s Ecclesiastical History of the English People

Sir Gawain and the Green Knight

The Pearl

– Alfred’s Translations

– Malory’s The Death of Arthur

– Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales

– Gower’s Confessio Amantis

– Wycliffe’s translation of the Bible

– Langland’s Piers Plowman

– Mystery and Morality plays
(AGoodLibrary is soon coming up with a separate article on each of these complicated terms, BTW!)

The Medieval Period aka Middle Ages refers to the period ranging from c. 476 AD (the fall of the Roman Empire) to c. 1400 AD (the pre-Renaissance age) in European history. It is referred to as Dark Ages because of the decline of the Roman Empire and along with it, the decline of literature, culture, arts, intellect, and their entire civilization. 

NOTE: Historians are unable to mark the divisions accurately as happens with any age, so consider this timeline a tentative one. But today, scholars have refused to use the term Dark Ages for the Middle Ages.

(A very important note: The terms Middle Ages and Medieval are used interchangeably according to their contextual requirement. Note that they both refer to the same period.)

The debate is ongoing and the more one digs in, the more contradictory evidence one stumbles upon. In my study of the Middle Ages, I have come to realize that labeling an age as dark or golden depends on what kind of historical evidence is available for the study. It is like listening to a story from a single perspective, seeing only the side of the coin visible to us. The other side remains in darkness, unknown to us. So, in this article, I will try to provide an unbiased collection of facts, views of different historians and scholars, and literary evidence of the period. 

How about – I’ll be Dr. Watson to your Sherlock, and in the end, you discover for yourselves what the reality is.

Let’s get deeper into the case now!


What do you mean by ‘Dark Ages’?

Medieval Age: What is the Medieval / Middle Age?
– What happened during the Medieval Period?
– The 3 periods of the Middle Ages / Medieval Period

Why is the Medieval Period called the Dark Ages?

What do the scholars think of the term ‘Dark Ages’?

What does the historical evidence suggest?
– Events in the Medieval Period
– Timeline of events in Europe during the Medieval Period / Middle Ages and Dark Ages

Religious Outlook during the Medieval Period / Dark Ages

Life during the Medieval Period / Dark Ages

Literature and Language during the Medieval Period / Dark Ages

What should we call it? The Middle Age or The Dark Age?


What do you mean by ‘Dark Ages’?

‘Dark Ages’ is the name given to a period when civilization declines or decays politically, socially, and economically, and becomes devoid of any kind of advancement. Rampant barbarism, the collapse of central political structures, and the spread of ignorance and superstitions – are some of the features that would characterize the dark ages. There is no progress in terms of learning or education, sciences and arts are little developed; it is as if civilization comes to a halt. 

Different scholars have different opinions when it comes to the timeline of the Dark Ages. Thus, I decided to compile all of them in one place. Check it out!

Timeline of the Dark AgesWhat is the period known asPeople/Journals who believe this is trueComments
AD 400 to AD 800Early Middle Ages The Italian Scholar Petrarch, Edward GibbonHe believed that no good literature came out of this period.
AD 500 to AD 1400The Medieval PeriodThe Enlightenment ScholarsBecause they followed the path of reason, the medieval period’s inclination toward religion disgusted enlightenment scholars.
Another reason is that there was not enough data available about the medieval period, so some thought the period to be in a veil of “darkness”.
AD 1100 to AD 1400 Late Middle AgesLater ScholarsWars, famines, and the Black Death

Now, let’s look at the Medieval Period.

Medieval Age: What is the Medieval / Middle Age?

The Medieval Period, aka the Middle Ages, is the period spanning c. 400 AD to 1400-1500 AD in the history of civilizations, in the European world. 

This period saw the development of English as a standard language, the spread of Christianity across Europe, the signing of the Magna Carta, rise and fall of a few great rulers such as Genghis Khan, Charlemagne, William the Conqueror, and Alfred the Great. Empires such as the Byzantines, the Anglo-Saxons, the Franks, and the Vikings waged wars and rose to power. 

What happened during the Medieval Period?

  • development of English as a standard language, 
  • the spread of Christianity across Europe, 
  • the signing of the Magna Carta, 
  • rise and fall of a few great rulers such as Genghis Khan, Charlemagne, William the Conqueror, and Alfred the Great. 
  • empires such as the Byzantine, the Anglo-Saxon, the Franks, 
  • and the Vikings- waged wars and rise to power. 
  • the Hundred Years’ War between England and France (1337 to 1453)
  • the Black Death (bubonic plague killing millions of people at a go)
  • Joan of Arc’s staked by England after her capture.

The world was newly emerging from shifting kingdoms and political as well as religious instability. Lack of science and technology was a cause of hindrance. 

Literature, though written, was lost to time or wars until the invention of the printing press in 1444 by German inventor Johannes Gutenberg.

To understand all the events better, let’s look at the division of the Medieval Period into 3 parts.

The 3 periods of the Middle Ages / Medieval Period

The entire Medieval period is roughly divided into three parts – The Early, High, and Late Middle Ages.

3 parts of the Medieval PeriodTimelineComments
The Early Middle Ages476 AD to 800 ADRange from the fall of the Roman Empire (476 AD) to the rise of Charlemagne, the first Holy Roman emperor (800 AD)
The High Middle Agesc. 11th century to c. 14th century(approximate) from the beginning of the 11th century up till the end of the 14th century
The Late Middle Agesc. 1250-1300 to c. 1500-1650The boundaries of this age too are uncertain, but it begins from the early 14th century up to the Renaissance. 
  • The Early Middle Ages: –

The Early Middle Ages is the age that is referred to as Dark Ages most commonly. The Anglo-Saxons had many internal strifes, so there was no centralized power over vast territories. Before the introduction of Christianity in these regions in 597 AD, pagan worshipping and literature were dominant. After the crowning of Charlemagne as the Holy Roman Emperor, there came political stability under his reign. Known as the father of French and English monarchies, he led the ambitious mission of uniting Western Europe under one rule. This period is also known as Late Antiquity as it bridges the gap between the ancient and medieval worlds.

  • The High Middle Ages:-

The most significant event which kick-started the high middle ages is the Norman Conquest of 1066. It happened after the Battle of Hastings where William, Duke of Normandy defeated Harold II of England and became the new ruler. The Normans brought French to the Anglo-Saxons and introduced new cultures, forms of literature, and religious outlooks to these robust dwellers. 

Another significant event is the signing of the Magna Carta, the English Charter, in 1215. It consisted of the charter of English liberties granted by King John to bring reforms to the judicial and local administration. Education also saw a rise with the establishment of universities in different parts of Europe. This period gave us scholars such as Thomas Aquinas and Peter Abelard, whose philosophies are still relevant in modern times. 

  • The Late Middle Ages:-

The Late Middle Ages were the actual dark times – “The Black Death, preceded by famine and overpopulation, wiped out at least a third of Europe and marked the end of the prosperity that had characterized the high medieval era. The Church, once so highly respected by the general populace, suffered reduced status when some of its priests refused to minister to the dying during the plague and sparked resentment when it enjoyed enormous profits in bequests from plague victims.” (Snell, “The Early, High and Late Middle Ages”)

Under such circumstances, it was difficult to attribute any success stories to the late middle ages.

Let’s understand further why the medieval ages were termed as dark ages –

Why is the Medieval Period called the Dark Ages?

The Medieval Period from c. 400 AD to 1400 AD saw the fall of the Roman Empire, political instability at its onset, barbarian wars, epidemics, the bubonic plague, the Hundred Years’ War, and a lack of scientific outlook overshadowed by blind faith and religion. 

The term Dark Ages was first coined by the 14th Century Italian scholar Francesco Petrarca (Petrarch), who was utterly despaired by the lack of good literature in the period. 

If it were not enough, Edward Gibbon’s History of the Decline and the Fall of the Roman Empire describes the Romans as glorious and civilized, gentle and powerful; whereas the “barbarians” looted and plundered this rich civilization “to achieve the destruction of the West.” (Gibbon as quoted in Wells xiii)

The later scholars from the Enlightenment period in the 18th Century, the “Age of Reason”, found the Anglo-Saxons as crude and orthodox, devoid of scientific outlook and advancement. For these intellectuals, the barbarians were only superstitious fools. 

Some scholars also deemed the middle ages dark for a lack of information that was available for study. The Middle Ages were in ‘darkness’, i.e., no substantial evidence was available of those times.

For many, it is not the entire Medieval Period that has been termed the Dark Ages, but rather the Early Middle Age from c. 400 AD to 800 AD up to the rise of Charlemagne, the first holy emperor of the Roman Empire. This aligns well with Petrarch and Gibbon’s perspectives. 

For others, the entire period of 900-1000 years comes under Dark Ages because no real development took place before the Renaissance and the European world witnessed a lot of wars, plagues, and deaths.

But remember, the worldview during that time was highly euro-centric. A lot of different kinds of developments were taking place in other parts of the world which suggest a completely different picture. 

We will glance over those events in the article ahead. After all, Sherlock wouldn’t want to miss even a single clue, right?

Now, it is time to question some experts in the matter!

What do the scholars think of the term ‘Dark Ages’?

A lot of scholars today look down upon the term Dark Ages for the medieval period. The earlier people indeed had reasons to call the middle ages dark, but after enough historical and archaeological evidence, it is clear why scholars would call it a period as remarkable as any other. 

  • The beginning of David Daiches’ first chapter in his A Critical History of English Literature – Volume I, corrects the misconception we have regarding the Anglo-Saxons. It goes something like this – 

“THE ANGLO-SAXON INVADERS, […] were the founders of what we can properly call English culture and English literature. They gave England its name, its language, and its links with “Germania,” that great body of Teutonic peoples whose migrations disrupted the Roman Empire and utterly changed the face of Europe. […] To the Romans, whose world they threatened and finally overcame, they were “barbarians,” appearing out of nowhere to endanger, with their primitive vigor and alien ways of thought, both the political structure of the Empire and the ideological structure of Greco-Roman thought. After the Roman Empire had become Christianized, the contrast between barbarian and Roman was even more striking, for the former were heathen and their life and their society reflected heroic ideals far removed from Roman Christian theory or practice. Yet the history of much of Europe in the so-called “Dark Ages” is the story of the gradual fusion of these two ways of life and thought, the growing together of barbarian and Christian and the grounding of both in an appropriately modified phase of the Greco-Roman tradition.”

(Daiches 03)

Daiches explains why the ‘dark ages’ is not the story of a barbaric people demolishing a rich civilization, but rather the early middle ages is a period of fusion and development of different thoughts and ways of life. What was the fall of the Roman Empire, became the rise for the Anglo-Saxons.

  • Another notable work by William J. Long, the English Literature: Its History And Its Significance For The Life Of The English-speaking World, defends against the claim that there was a lack of literature during the Middle Ages  –

“…(1) the long war with France and the civil Wars of the Roses distracted attention from books and poetry, and destroyed or ruined many noble English families who had been friends and patrons of literature; (2) the Reformation in the latter part of the period filled men’s minds with religious questions; (3) the Revival of Learning set scholars and literary men to an eager study of the classics, rather than to the creation of native literature.”

(Long 108)

The medieval period saw a lot of turmoils and shifts in the European landscape. While development was not completely absent, people went through catastrophic changes which resulted in the inclination toward faith than science. The period from 1400 AD to 1550 AD is known as the ‘Revival of Learning’ which bridged the gap between the Medieval Period and the Renaissance.

  • Peter S. Wells has written an entire book in the defense of these “barbarians” titled Barbarians to Angels: The Dark Ages Reconsidered. He writes in his preface –

“As I show in this book, the time once known as the Dark Ages-the fifth through eighth centuries was anything but dark. It was a time of brilliant cultural activity. Only writers who believed that Rome and its society and values constituted the ideals of human existence viewed succeeding centuries as a period of decline and darkness. If we focus on the material evidence that the peoples of temperate Europe left behind, instead of on the rantings of late Roman writers about societies they did not understand, we see a creative and dynamic picture of these centuries emerge. Subsequent developments in Europe, including the Renaissance and modern civilization, owe as much to the “barbarians” as to Rome. Rather than a disjuncture in cultural life. the fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth centuries-the “Dark Ages” to some-were times during which Europeans created the basis for medieval and modern Western civilization.”

(Wells xiv)

The middle ages functioned as the base on which modern Western civilization stands. Forming the base includes the process of trial and error and experimentation. It is like when we study literature, do we get any time to create one of our own? 

Wells further explains the title of his book in the next paragraph of his preface stating that the title “represents the major change in our understanding of the period”, from “violence to chaos” (barbarians) to a significant catalyst in the process of cultural enrichment (angels). (Wells xiv)

All in all, there is a lot of evidence that busts the myth of the Dark Ages.

Let’s check that out in the next section –

What does the historical evidence suggest?

Events in the Medieval Period

Though Europe went through a series of events in the Middle Ages that can be characterized as dark, many of its counterparts witnessed growth and development. Even in Europe, some priests or rulers defied the prevailing norms and went out of their way for the development and advancement of their civilization. (Charlemagne – King, Montecassino – Abbey)

The biggest example is Islam’s ‘Golden Age’ (5th Century to 11th Century) during the same period as Europe’s ‘Dark Age’. Baghdad was at the height of maths (especially trigonometry), poetry, and philosophy. The Islamic world is also credited with introducing Arabic numerals to Europe. They believed in the teachings of ancient Greek philosophers and studied them thoroughly. 

While Western Europe still fought for religious ideologies, the Abbasids flourished in not only religion but also science. Their acceptance of multiculturalism invited scholars from all over the world. Such was only experienced during the Hellenistic period in Greece. They translated most of Aristotle’s works (without which we would have lost it to time), Buddhist and Hindu manuscripts, and texts of many Greek scholars.

Hence, calling the Medieval Period of the entire world ‘dark’ doesn’t seem justified. But again, we are focussing here on English history, so my primary focus is to list out the events that took place in Europe which affected England.

(Note: This is just a tentative list of events concerning the contents of this article. You must study the events carefully before deriving their significance to the fall or rise of Europe in the Middle Ages.)

Timeline of events in Europe during the Medieval Period / Middle Ages and Dark Ages:

Timeline (AD)Event
476 Fall of the Roman Empire. Anglo-Saxons, a Germanic tribe, cross the North Sea and arrive in Britain.
597The arrival of Christianity in Britain through St. Augustine.
750Beowulf is written.
800Charlemagne, the leader of the Franks, becomes the Holy Roman Emperor.
835Beginning of the Vikings’ Attack.
871Alfred the Great becomes King of England.
896King Alfred sends the Viking invaders back. 
1066The Norman Conquest. William the Conqueror becomes the King of England.
1095The Crusades begin. Military Expedition to win over the “Christian Holy Land”.
1114Henry I invades Wales.
1169English Conquest of Ireland.
1209Establishment of Cambridge University.
1215The signing of the Magna Carta by King John.
1314The Battle of Bannockburn. Fight for Scotland’s freedom.
1337 – 1453The Hundred Years of War between France and England.
1347The Black Death. Bubonic Plague arrives. Takes over millions of lives across Europe.
1381The Peasants’ Revolt.
1387Geoffrey Chaucer begins his ‘The Canterbury Tales.
1415Henry V defeats the French at Agincourt.
1444Johannes Gutenberg invents the printing press.
1452Birth of Leonardo Da Vinci. 
1453The Byzantine Empire falls to the Ottoman Empire.
1476William Caxton brings the printing press to England.
1485Richard III was defeated in the last battle of the War of Roses, Bosworth.

Religious Outlook during the Medieval Period / Dark Ages

The Anglo-Saxons from the Early Middle Ages were pagan worshippers. The evidence is present in their literature and their lifestyles. But after St. Augustine arrived in Kent in 597 AD to spread Christianity, there was a merging of religious ideologies. Although the king of Kent, Æthelberht, accepted Christianity right away, it was a much more difficult task to convince the entire continent. 

Christianity started to leave its traces in poetry and literature during the Northumbrian Period*. Religious poetry became a common form of literature.  For a long while, people were still adapting to the changing religious ideologies before Christianity dug its roots deep into English soil. The Church started to destroy pagan beliefs and tried to get complete authority over people’s lives. Some sects in the society opposed such rigid confirmation, such as the Cathars. Another non-Christian presence was that of the Jews and Muslims.

While most of the peasants were made to follow Christianity, Jewish traders contributed to the development of Europe. At the same time, “The works of Islamic scholars and scientists found their way to Europe along with translations of some of the greatest classical thinkers and writers such as Aristotle, whose works would have been lost if not for Muslim scribes.” (Mark “Religion in the Middle Ages”)

The orthodox church that suppressed all other forms of worship was an ultimate failure when the Black Death (the bubonic plague) arrived. People who had been taught to run to their God in times of crisis lost their faith in both medicine and religion in the late middle ages. One of the reasons why scholars from the Enlightenment looked upon the medieval period as a period of darkness was this kind of blind worshipping which didn’t help during a crisis. 

In short, people in the medieval period were battling to keep their pagan roots alive against a confirmatory church. But in the end, no religion or God could save people during wars, famines, and plagues.

(*Note: There was another saint who brought Christianity to Western Europe – St. Aidan, from Ireland. The monks from his group chiefly resided in Northumbria, the center of monasteries and abbeys, such as Jarrow and Whitby. Writers such as Bede, Cynewulf, and Cædmon were the product of this conversion.)

Life during the Medieval Period / Dark Ages

  • The European population was made up of nobility, clergy, and 90% of the peasant class. Feudalism was dominant during those times. Many of these peasants were lifelong slaves/serfs to the rich feudal lords. 
  • As time passed, the formation of guilds became common. Craftsmen, carpenters, merchants, masons, and others formed their guilds to protect their rights and stand as a united front against the noble lords.
  • Because the roots of the Middle Ages were grounded in chivalry from their Anglo-Saxon ancestors, codes of chivalry were widespread amongst knights who wanted to protect their king. Honor, courage, and integrity were common virtues. 
  • The clothing and housing differed across the classes of Europe. While the rich bathed in luxuries, the poor resided in filth. Trade and education only reached the upper sections of the population.

Literature and Language during the Medieval Period / Dark Ages

The timeline of the development of English doesn’t align directly with the period of the Middle Ages. The Anglo-Saxon invaders from Germania not only brought on the fall of the Roman Empire but also a vast source of cultural ethnicity, different languages, and an opposite lifestyle. The language they used is today referred to as ‘Old English’ or ‘Anglo-Saxon English’.  Until this time, Latin was the predominant language used throughout the Roman Empire. 

The origin of the English language can thus be attributed to the fall of the Roman Empire. But we have to remember that the Old English was unrefined and just taking baby steps out of its cradle. The most famous work of literature from this period is the epic poem – Beowulf. Every literature student has heard of Beowulf – the poem that reflects the courageous and noble side of the so-called barbarians. You can check out a detailed analysis of Beowulf – (your link). Other important works from this period are – The Seafarer, Deor’s Lament, The Wanderer, Waldere (Check full analysis here), The Wife’s Lament, The Husband’s Message, etc.

After the arrival of St. Augustine in Kent in 597 AD, Christian themes were introduced into the once pagan literature. The spread of Christianity marked the introduction of a new culture and a new language. It is during this period that authors start signing their works with their names – giving us three prominent and only known writers of that time – Bede, Cynewulf, and Cædmon (religiously influenced by St. Aidan).

The Venerable Bede’s Ecclesiastical History of the English People proves to be a significant source of the olden times. Cædmon (popularly known as the Anglo-Saxon Milton) wrote Paraphrase – the story of Genesis, Exodus, and a part of Daniel in a dynamic and imaginative language. Cynewulf’s Hymns depict the religious following in those times. The Dream of the Rood, The Descent into Hell, The Wanderer, and some of the riddles are attributed to him.
The greatest contribution to the codification of English and prose in this era goes to Alfred the Great, King of England. From Bede’s History to Boethius’ Consolations of Philosophy, there are rarely any works left to today’s reader in their original dialect, thanks to King Alfred.  The translation of the Saxon Chronicle (a record of birth and deaths in the West Saxon Kingdom) preserved credible dates beginning with Caesar’s conquest. What we have to understand here is, that it is not the works that left a deeper mark on history but the development of English under King Alfred’s reign. In Long’s words –

“… now he set himself the task, first, of teaching every freeborn Englishman to read and write his own language, and second, of translating into English the best books for their instruction.”

(Long 45)

Next, the Norman Conquest of 1066 brought French influence over the recently developing English.  The scholar William J. Long notes – 

“When these Norman-French people appeared in Anglo-Saxon England they brought with them three noteworthy things: a lively Celtic disposition, a vigorous and progressive Latin civilization, and a Romantic language.”

(Long 53)

The sophistication of French merges with the grandeur of English. Though Anglo-Saxon literature had the potential to surpass Anglo-French literature in quality, a bounded people cannot create great literature. The notable works in this period are –

  1. Geoffrey of Monmouth – Historia Regum Britanniæ
  2. Layamon’s Brut (English rhyming chronicle)
  3. Metrical romances
  4. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (includes the combination of French and Saxon elements)
  5. The Pearl
  6. The Owl and the Nightingale
  7. Geste of Robin Hood
  8. Geoffrey Chaucer – 
    • The Canterbury Tales
    • The Book of Duchess
    • Legend of Good Women
    • House of Fame
    • Romaunt of the Rose
    • Troilus and Criseyde

After Chaucer’s fame, the literary age of his times was named after him – The Chaucerian Age. The other significant works in Chaucer’s times are –

  1. William Langland – Piers Plowman
  2. John Wyclif – Translation of Bible into English
  3. John Mandeville – Voyage and Travail of Sir John Mandeville
  4. John Gower – Confessio Amantis

After Caxton brought the printing press to England, one of the most important works that got published is Thomas Malory’s Morte d’Arthur. Though this work comes under the period of ‘The Revival of Learning’, it is medieval in spirit and language. Whatever literature came after it became the stepping stone for the Age of Renaissance. 

We have so far toured the medieval ages, glancing through their lives, religious ideologies, political changes, and literary works. We made an analysis of the events that took place and their effects. 

I presume, Sherlock has got all the clues, but the final question remains –

What should we call it? The Middle Age or The Dark Age?

After going through all the historical evidence and scholarly opinion above, we can safely deduce that labeling the Medieval Period as the ‘Dark Ages’ would be an injustice to its contributions. And yet, it is equally true that we have witnessed some of the most dangerous catastrophes during the late middle ages. In my opinion, we should keep on studying and learning more before we come to rigid conclusions, all the while remaining aware that every age has had its ups and downs; every age wonders if it’s the ‘Golden Age’ or the ‘Dark’ one. So does ours.


In conclusion, the period ranging from the fifth century to the fifteenth century in European history (may as well be the world history) is called the Medieval period. Different scholars refer to different parts of this period as the ‘Dark Ages.’ Nonetheless, the term ‘Dark Ages’ has become so popular and common in use that I think it would be hard to get rid of it anytime soon. Yet, there is progress, and perhaps a greater insight along with more archaeological discoveries would help the reputation the medieval period has formed over time.

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